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Section 1a: Identification of Monarch Eggs and Larvae

This is the second video of the Monarch Larva Monitoring Project video training series, reviewing monarch biology and identification skills for eggs and larval instars.

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Photo Credits (in order of appearance)

  1. Monarch egg close-up: Monarch Lab Photo
  2. 5th instar eating: Denny Brooks
  3. Pupa on a leaf: www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com
  4. Adult male monarch on purple flower: Dave Astin
  5. Common milkweed: Wendy Caldwell
  6. Finding an egg on milkweed: Wendy Caldwell
  7. Eggs on young milkweed: Gail Gilliland
  8. Monarch egg close-up: Monarch Lab Photo
  9. Hatching larva close-up: Siah St. Clair
  10. Five larvae stages: Karen Oberhauser
  11. Molting larva: Jessica Womack
  12. 5th instar eating milkweed flower: Denny Brooks
  13. 1st instar eating chorion: www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com
  14. 1st instar eating patterns: Karen Oberhauser
  15. 2nd instar larva against ruler: Karen Oberhauser
  16. Two 2nd instars: Karen Oberhauser
  17. 2nd and 3rd instar comparison: Karen Oberhauser
  18. Tentacles of 3rd instar close-up: Karen Oberhauser
  19. True-legs: Karen Oberhauser
  20. Pro-legs: Karen Oberhauser
  21. 4th instar larva: Karen Oberhauser
  22. 5th instar on milkweed: Wendy Caldwell
  23. 5th instar eating: Denny Brooks
  24. 5th instar eating pattern: Lynda Andrews Wayne
  25. 2nd instar comparison: Karen Oberhauser
  26. Recently molted 3rd instar: Karen Oberhauser
  27. 3rd and 4th instar comparison: Karen Oberhauser
  28. 5th instar size comparison: Kip Kiphart
  29. Monarch egg look-alikes: Anurag Agrawal

Glossary Terms (in alphabetical order)

androconial scales

(an-dro-KO-nee-al): wing or body scales that disperse a pheromone.

Asclepias syriaca

(u-SKLEE-pee-us sir-I-uh-kuh): common milkweed. The most common host plant for monarch larvae in the upper Midwestern U.S. Monarchs also eat other members of the genus Asclepias.

camouflage

to hide or disguise. There are two types of camouflage: protective resemblance and protective coloration. Protective resemblance is when something looks like something else in its environment. Protective coloration is when something has the same color or pattern as its surroundings.

chorion

(KOR-ee-ahn): the hard outer shell of insect eggs. (In general, the chorion is the outermost membrane enclosing the developing embryo. In reptiles, this layer lies just inside the shell, and in mammals the chorion becomes the placenta.)

cuticle

the hard outside part of the butterfly's skin that is no longer living.

eclose

to emerge as an adult from the pupa stage.

family

a category of classification that contains relatedgenera.

genus

plural, genera: a category in classification that contains one to many similar or related species.

hemolymph

(HEE-muh-lim(p)f): the name for the blood of insects.

instar

a period between larval molts. There are five of these periods in the growth of a monarch larva.

larva

(LAR-vuh), plural, larvae (LAR-vee): the second stage, after the egg, in metamorphosis. Also known as caterpillar. Monarchs molt five times in their larval state, which lasts about 9-14 days.

Lepidoptera

(lep-uh-DOP-ter-uh): the order of insects that is made up of butterflies and moths. This word should be capitalized, but the adjective lepidopteran should not.

meconium

(mi-KO-nee-um): the fluid monarchs excrete shortly after they emerge from the chrysalis.

metamorphosis

(met-uh-MOR-fuh-sis): the series of developmental stages through which insects go to become adults. Through metamorphosis a butterfly is transformed from an egg, to a larva, to a pupa, to a butterfly. There are two types of metamorphosis: incomplete (simple) and complete (complex) metamorphosis. The four distinct stages of metamorphosis found in butterflies is considered complete metamorphosis. Incomplete metamorphosis does not have a prolonged immobile (pupa) stage.

molt

the process of shedding the skin or exoskeleton. Monarch larvae molt five times.

order

a category in classification that contains related families.

pheromones

(FAIR-uh-mohns): special chemicals released by some animals to communicate with other members of their species. They may be sensed over long distances to help mates find each other. They may also help ensure that mating only occurs with other members of the same species.

pigmentation

coloration caused by all light wavelengths, but that of the color emitted, being absorbed.

proboscis

(pro-BAHS-kiss): the adult monarch's feeding tube, for sucking nectar, which is coiled under the head when not in use.

prolegs

the "false" legs on the abdominal segments of the monarch larva.

pupa

(PU-puh) plural, pupae (PU-pee): the third stage in metamorphosis, after the larval stage. In monarchs this stage lasts 8-13 days.

pupate

to change from a larva (caterpillar) to a pupa (chrysalis).

scales

overlapping pieces of chitin (the same material of which exoskeletons are made) that insulate butterflies' bodies and wings, improve their aerodynamics, and give them color and markings. Many people think the scales look like fine dust on butterfly wings.

species

a group of organisms recognized as distinct from other groups. Differentiates between members of a genus.

tactile setae

(TAK-tile SEE-tay): hairs through which butterflies and moths sense touch. They extend through the exoskeleton and connect to nerve cells inside the insect's body.

tentacles

the fleshy black extensions at the front and rear of the monarch larvae, which function as sense organs. Also called filaments.

thorax

the middle section of an insect's body. The wings (if present) and legs are attached to this segment.

true legs

jointed appendages located on the thoracic segment of the larva. Contrast with prolegs.

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