Section 1b: Identification of Monarch Pupae, Adults, Host Plants, and Nectar Plants
This is the third video of the Monarch Larva Monitoring Project video training series, reviewing monarch biology, pupation, ecolsion, and male/female identification. An overview of milkweed and nectaring is also provided.
Photo Credits (in order of appearance)
- Monitoring site with milkweed: Deb Marcinski
- Monarch pupa on peony leaf: Robert B. Hughes
- Cocoon: Flickr photographer Dean Morley (deanster1983)
- J and pupa in peony bush: Robert B. Hughes
- 5th instar crawling on tree: Kelly Duhn
- Series of transformation from larva to pupa: www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com
- Monarch egg close-up: Monarch Lab Photo
- 5th instar eating: Denny Brooks
- Adult male monarch on purple flower: Dave Astin
- Common milkweed: Wendy Caldwell
- Wing pigmentation on pupa: Siah St. Clair
- Series of adult eclosion: www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com
- Female and male comparison: Michelle Solensky
- Female abdomen: Bruce & Tamy Leventhal
- Male abdomen: Bruce & Tamy Leventhal
- Mating adults resting on a branch: Wendy Caldwell
- Asclepias incarnata, or swamp milkweed: Wendy Caldwell
- Asclepias tuberosa, or butterfly milkweed: Wendy Caldwell
- Asclepias syrica, or common milkweed: Monarch Watch
- Asclepias asperula, antelopehorns milkweed: Carol Cullar
- Asclepias verticillata, or whorled milkweed: Karen Oberhauser
- Butterflies on New England aster: Jim Ellis
- Monarch on Rudbeckia: Barbara Powers
- Butterflies on goldenrod: Jim Ellis
- Adult monarch nectaring close-up: Jim Ellis
- Monarchs nectaring preparing for migration: Dallas Hudson
Glossary Terms (in alphabetical order)
- androconial scales
(an-dro-KO-nee-al): wing or body scales that disperse a pheromone.
- Asclepias syriaca
(u-SKLEE-pee-us sir-I-uh-kuh): common milkweed. The most common host plant for monarch larvae in the upper Midwestern U.S. Monarchs also eat other members of the genus Asclepias.
to hide or disguise. There are two types of camouflage: protective resemblance and protective coloration. Protective resemblance is when something looks like something else in its environment. Protective coloration is when something has the same color or pattern as its surroundings.
(KOR-ee-ahn): the hard outer shell of insect eggs. (In general, the chorion is the outermost membrane enclosing the developing embryo. In reptiles, this layer lies just inside the shell, and in mammals the chorion becomes the placenta.)
the hard outside part of the butterfly's skin that is no longer living.
to emerge as an adult from the pupa stage.
a category of classification that contains relatedgenera.
plural, genera: a category in classification that contains one to many similar or related species.
(HEE-muh-lim(p)f): the name for the blood of insects.
a period between larval molts. There are five of these periods in the growth of a monarch larva.
(LAR-vuh), plural, larvae (LAR-vee): the second stage, after the egg, in metamorphosis. Also known as caterpillar. Monarchs molt five times in their larval state, which lasts about 9-14 days.
(lep-uh-DOP-ter-uh): the order of insects that is made up of butterflies and moths. This word should be capitalized, but the adjective lepidopteran should not.
(mi-KO-nee-um): the fluid monarchs excrete shortly after they emerge from the chrysalis.
(met-uh-MOR-fuh-sis): the series of developmental stages through which insects go to become adults. Through metamorphosis a butterfly is transformed from an egg, to a larva, to a pupa, to a butterfly. There are two types of metamorphosis: incomplete (simple) and complete (complex) metamorphosis. The four distinct stages of metamorphosis found in butterflies is considered complete metamorphosis. Incomplete metamorphosis does not have a prolonged immobile (pupa) stage.
the process of shedding the skin or exoskeleton. Monarch larvae molt five times.
a category in classification that contains related families.
(FAIR-uh-mohns): special chemicals released by some animals to communicate with other members of their species. They may be sensed over long distances to help mates find each other. They may also help ensure that mating only occurs with other members of the same species.
coloration caused by all light wavelengths, but that of the color emitted, being absorbed.
(pro-BAHS-kiss): the adult monarch's feeding tube, for sucking nectar, which is coiled under the head when not in use.
the "false" legs on the abdominal segments of the monarch larva.
(PU-puh) plural, pupae (PU-pee): the third stage in metamorphosis, after the larval stage. In monarchs this stage lasts 8-13 days.
to change from a larva (caterpillar) to a pupa (chrysalis).
overlapping pieces of chitin (the same material of which exoskeletons are made) that insulate butterflies' bodies and wings, improve their aerodynamics, and give them color and markings. Many people think the scales look like fine dust on butterfly wings.
a group of organisms recognized as distinct from other groups. Differentiates between members of a genus.
- tactile setae
(TAK-tile SEE-tay): hairs through which butterflies and moths sense touch. They extend through the exoskeleton and connect to nerve cells inside the insect's body.
the fleshy black extensions at the front and rear of the monarch larvae, which function as sense organs. Also called filaments.
the middle section of an insect's body. The wings (if present) and legs are attached to this segment.
- true legs
jointed appendages located on the thoracic segment of the larva. Contrast with prolegs.